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Contemporary art in Russia俄罗斯当代艺术

Top guns壮志凌云

Mar 26th 2009 | MOSCOW
From The Economist print edition

The bear still hungers for new art北极熊依然对新艺术充满渴望

RUSSIAN billionaires may come and go, but the ambition to be the next Sergei Shchukin—whose unrivalled collection of works by Henri Matisse were divided after the revolution between the Pushkin and Hermitage state museums—appears undimmed. Russian collecting is far from dead, thanks to “a new cast of characters”, says Francis Outred, Christie’s new European head of post-war and contemporary art.

俄罗斯的富豪换了一代又一代,但是想成为下一个谢尔盖•希楚金(Sergei Shchukin)的雄心却从未改变过。希楚金对亨利•马蒂斯(Henri Matisse)作品的收藏,慧眼独具无与伦比(十月革命后藏品被分藏于普希金博物馆和艾尔米塔什国家博物馆)。佳士得欧洲新任战后当代艺术部主管Francis Outred认为,因为有了“新角色”的出现,俄罗斯收藏界还远未到被宣判死亡的地步。

Collections have become an object of fascination in a culture that once had few possessions. In October 2007 the Hermitage inaugurated its contemporary-art programme with an exhibition of work by young American artists from Charles Saatchi’s collection. “We like to see what these people spend their money on”, explains the curator, Dimitri Ozerkov.

对当代艺术品的收藏在俄罗斯文化中原本无足轻重,现今却变成炙手可热的行当。2007年10月,艾尔米塔什国家博物馆就Charles Saatchi的收藏举办了美国年轻艺术家作品展, 同时作为其当代艺术展览活动的开幕。馆长Dimitri Ozerkov就此解释说:“我们想借此来了解他们这些人将钱花在了什么地方”。



On March 19th Daria Zhukova, best known as Roman Abramovich’s girlfriend, opened Russia’s largest exhibition of contemporary art. Located in her architecturally acclaimed Garage Centre for Contemporary Culture (GCCC) in Moscow, the show consists of 47 works from the collection of François Pinault (pictured above at the opening with Ms Zhukova), a French luxury-goods magnate who also owns Christie’s.

2009年3月19日,罗曼•阿布拉莫维奇(Roman Abramovich)的女友,达丽娅•朱可娃(Daria Zhukova)在其位于莫斯科的车库当代文化中心(该建筑广受赞誉)举办了一场当代艺术品展,此次对当代艺术的展览为俄罗斯目前最大的一次。展出包括47件法国奢侈品巨头弗朗西斯•皮诺(François Pinault)的藏品,皮诺同时还是佳士得的总裁(上图为开幕式与朱可娃合影)。

The exhibition is strategic for the French billionaire in two ways. Provenance has always added value to art objects, but the trend is towards promoting it proactively. Mr Pinault’s collection consists of over 2,000 works, which since 2006 have been packaged into a series of impressively curated shows. His new museum in the Punta della Dogana in Venice will be one of the highlights of this year’s Biennale.

此次展出对这位法国富豪有着双重战略意义。首先,由于作品的出处对作品往往具有增值作用,而流行趋势则需要主动积极的去推动。因此自2006年起,皮诺便将其超过2000件的藏品分类并有针对性的在一系列令人瞩目的展会中展出。而在今年的威尼斯双年展,其位于威尼斯海关大楼(Punta della Dogana)的新美术馆必将成为双年展上耀眼的一部分。

Moreover, as a collector who sometimes sells and the owner of an auction house, Mr Pinault values Ms Zhukova and Mr Abramovich as clients. They bought a Lucian Freud painting at Christie’s last May for $33.6m, a record for a work by a living artist, and acquired decorative arts from the Yves Saint Laurent sale last month. The GCCC exhibition was an opportunity to further strengthen alliances.

更重要的是,皮诺不仅是一名偶尔会出售藏品的收藏家而且他还是一家拍卖行的老板,他将阿布和朱可娃视为其客户。阿布和朱可娃于去年5月份在佳士得以3360万美元拍得一件卢西安•弗洛伊德的画作,这个价格是在世画家作品拍卖的一项纪录。上个月他们还在伊夫•圣罗兰拍卖会上购得部分装饰艺术品。在车库当代文化中心举行的这次展会,是一次进一步增进双方关系的好机会。

The importance to the art market of Ms Zhukova and Mr Abramovich is symbolic as much as material. In a country where collecting foreign art ceased in 1917 and picked up pace again only recently, Ms Zhukova is in the vanguard of that mix of fashion, philanthropy and patronage that gives the art market its particular buzz, even if at the moment the couple may not be the biggest spenders. “Everyone had more financial freedom 18 months ago,” admits Ms Zhukova.

阿布和朱可娃对艺术市场的重要性就如同素材对艺术的重要性。俄罗斯对国外画作的收藏止步于1917年,最近刚刚开始加快脚步进行追赶。这其中混合了流行时尚、慈善公益以及赞助的成分,在艺术市场中发出了他们独有的声音,虽然就目前来说他们两个人可能并不是最大的消费者,但朱可娃仍是这部分先驱的一员。朱可娃说:“从1年半前以来,每个人都有了更多的消费自由。”

Other Russians are buying, though. Many start their international collections by acquiring a living brand name. “Every Russian collector owns a Damien Hirst”, says Maria Baibakova, a Courtauld-trained curator; she also collects with her father, Oleg Baybakov, whose business partner is Mikhail Prokhorov, currently considered Russia’s richest man. “Then you might graduate to a Richard Prince, a Warhol or a Lichtenstein,” she adds. Out of Mr Hirst’s sale at Sotheby’s last September, “Beautiful Inside My Head Forever”, Ms Baibakova bought a zebra in formaldehyde for £1.1m. Next week her space, Red October Chocolate Factory, will host highlights from Sotheby’s forthcoming spring auctions.

其他的俄罗斯人也在进行收藏。很多人都以购买一件现有知名艺术家的作品来开始他们的异国收藏生涯。玛利亚•贝芭库娃(Maria Baibakova),毕业于考特奥德艺术学院,作为一位艺术馆长,她与其父亲奥雷格•拜巴科夫(Oleg Baybakov)一起从事收藏。其父乃是现今俄罗斯首富米哈伊尔•普罗霍罗夫(Mikhail Prokhorov)的商业伙伴。贝芭库娃介绍说:“每个俄罗斯收藏者都有一件达明安•赫斯特(Damien Hirst)的作品,随后其可能会进一步收藏理查德•普林斯(Richard Prince)、安迪•沃霍尔(Andy Warhol)或者罗伊•利希滕斯坦(Roy Lichtenstein)。”去年9月份在苏富比名为“记忆中的永恒之美“(Beautiful Inside My Head Forever)的赫斯特拍卖会上,贝芭库娃以110万欧元购买了其中一件作品,甲醛中的斑马。下周,她的艺术馆“红色十月巧克力加工厂”将主办苏富比新春拍卖会。

The success of Mr Hirst’s sale, which began the evening that Lehman Brothers collapsed, was in no small part due to collectors from the former Soviet Union. Vladislav Doronin, a Russian property tycoon, bought work, and Alexander Machkevitch, a Kazakh mining magnate, acquired two diamond cabinets, three butterfly paintings and a gold spot canvas for a total of £11.7m. Victor Pinchuk, a Ukrainian steel billionaire, is believed to have bought the large fish cabinet, “Here Today, Gone Tomorrow”, for £2.95m. It is one of the 100 works that will be shown in the Hirst retrospective, which opens at Mr Pinchuk’s Art Centre in Kiev next month.

雷曼兄弟倒闭的当晚,赫斯特拍卖会举行,这场拍卖会的成功,完全归功于前苏联的收藏家们。俄罗斯房产大亨弗拉狄斯拉夫•托洛尼(Vladislav Doronin),购买了其作品,哈萨克斯坦矿业巨头Alexander Machkevitch拍下了2个钻石柜,3张蝴蝶画,1张金色斑点油画,共计1170万欧元。乌克兰钢铁大王维克多•平丘克(Victor Pinchuk)据说以2950万欧元拍下了名为“今天来明天去”( “Here Today, Gone Tomorrow”)的巨大鱼柜。这件藏品只是其众多赫斯特藏品之一,下个月他将在其位于基辅的艺术中心举行赫斯特艺术回顾展,展出其收藏的百件赫斯特作品。

Over the past 18 months, a significant number of market highs and lows have been linked to the presence or absence of buyers from the former Soviet Union. Whereas demand for exorbitantly priced works by Modern artists, such as Kasimir Malevich, has evaporated,sitemap, the appetite for contemporary works is spreading. Victoria Gelfand, a director of Gagosian, an important New York gallery, reports that she has sold art to two new Russian collectors in the past month alone. Whether that is enough, though, remains to be seen.

在过去的1年半当中,收藏市场重要数据的起起伏伏均跟前苏联买家出席与否有关。然而对估价过高的现代艺术家作品的需求在萎缩,如卡西米尔•马列维奇的作品,但对当代作品的胃口却在增大。纽约重要画廊高古轩画廊的负责人维多利亚•格尔范德(Victoria Gelfand)公布说,仅仅在上个月她就与2位俄罗斯收藏新人发生了交易。当然不管这些是否足够,一切尚待检验。
 


 


 

 


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